About: This current project is conducted by PhD student Alessandro Zulli and Prof Jordan Peccia at Yale University, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering. Primary sludge samples are collected by personnel at New Haven's wastewater treatment facility and transferred by courier to Yale where viral RNA and DNA is extracted and SARS-CoV-2 concentrations hMPX are measured. This project is funded from January 1, 2022 through June 15, 2023.

Data interpretation: The wastewater concentration of viruses is proportional to the number of COVID-19 or monkeypox infections in the community. Thus, increasing SARS-CoV-2 or hMPX wastewater concentrations indicate an outbreak. Based on historical data for COVID-19, a rough conversion of wastewater concentration to cases is the following: 600 SARS-CoV-2 genome copies per mL is equivalent to 1 new COVID-19 case per day per 100,000 residents. For example, a concentration of 60,000 genome copies/mL equates to ~100 daily cases per 100,000 residents.